V.N.Pushkin, strong> «Knowledge is power», N.11, 1972 em>.
Start Me, perhaps best of all, with a detective story. She told the world the American criminologist Baxter strong>. He was the killer and the victim was. It was the fact of death. Even witnesses to the crime were. Fortunately, in this murder as the victim did not appear human. The killer takes the life of … shrimp. Baxter told the story contained a description of the model of crime, rather than the crime itself. But from this it does not become less interesting.
Baxter by the nature of their regular professional activities carried out experiments with so-called lie detector. Readers will probably have heard a lot about the psychological method of crime detection. It is impractical to describe in detail. It is a system of thin electronic devices that can be used to record the emotional processes that take place with the person. If the suspect in the crime, when he shows any subject pertaining to the crime, finds excitement increases the probability of his guilt.
One Baxter came up with the most unusual idea: to put the sensors on the list houseplant. He wanted to find out whether there will be a plant electrical reaction at a time when there will be a living creature to die. Strong>
The experiment was organized so. Live shrimp laid on a plate, mounted on a vessel of boiling water. This plaque perevёrtyvalas per minute, it is not known even to the experimenter. For this random number generator used. Machine breakdowns – shrimp dropped into boiling water and die. On the tape lie detector check mark appears. On this tape recorded the electrical state of a plant leaf. Experiments have registered: leaf flower at the time of the death of shrimp changed the course of electrical processes.
… We, the people tumultuous events of the XX century, not little surprise: too many new unexpected comes to us from the pages of newspapers and magazines. Yet few people absolutely indifferent react to the results of Baxter. Plants – witnesses to a crime! It is perceived as a kind of grand sensation. In just such a sensation (which is hard to believe, but about which very inresno read) the fact that the newspapers magazines bypassed many countries. And in this big noise sensation only a narrow circle of experts recalled that similar experiments have been carried out and that it was those old experiments are of fundamental importance for the whole complex of modern sciences.
… Research the great Indian scholar Dzh.Ch.Bossa [Jagadish Chandra Bose Jagadish Chandra Bose, 1858 – 1937 – Indian botanist and physicist.], The work of Soviet researchers and professors I.I.Gunara V.G.Karmanova established: Plants have their senses, they are able to perceive, process and store information about the outside world. strong> [ Ie. brains to organize a completely redundant memory, Sheldrake called this morofogeneticheskimi (morphogenetic) fields – Ed em> ] The great significance of these remarkable studies for various industries know, we fully appreciated only in the future. [Unfortunately, the prophetic words. Maybe it’s time to have this time come ?!] “Psyche” (in a very special, not yet clearly marked sense of the word), it turns out, there is in living cells, deprived of the nervous system. Can you believe it?
… For centuries, researchers have thought that the plants do not need the mind: they do not have the same organs of movement, that is, the animals even at an early stage of their development. And time is not of movement, so there is no behavior: it is to control them and need mental processes. It is in the cells of the nervous system in neurons occurs processes such as perception, memory, and all that is called going from ancient times the terms “psyche”, “mental activity.” However, for a long time it has been known to plant response to exposure to the outside world. Drosera example, responds to insects touching it catches them by means of special motor devices. Some plants open their flowers under the rays of light. All this is very similar to the simple reflexes of animals in response to external stimulation. It looks like … but …
And suddenly it turns out: the plants are able to distinguish quite complex objects of the external world. And not only to distinguish, but also respond to a change in the electrical potentials. Moreover, the form and nature of these electrical phenomena similar processes occurring in human skin when it is experiencing a psychological event.
From the perspective of a truly stunning scientific evidence becomes quite clear results of the American criminalist Baxter. Judging by the publications, his attempt was quite successful. We can assume that the plants and trees in their own language imprint criminal fix it, remember the suffering of the victim.
Flower sympathizes strong>
But no matter how interesting this fact in terms of acute human relationships, the study of information processes in plants, scientists are interested in a very different point of view. This raises the question of the huge importance of the theoretical – what value can have the results for the science of the inner world of man? Strong>
But first of all I would like to tell you about the research on the psychology of the plant, to which I was myself. He began the search of our laboratory experiments employee V.M.Fetisov. It was he who introduced me to the publications about the effect of Baxter. He brought the house flower, common geranium, and began her experiments. In the view of colleagues from neighboring laboratory experiments we presented more than strange. Indeed, to experiment with colors was used EEG. It is usually used for the study of electrical phenomena in the cells of the human brain. With this device you can record the electrical response of the skin, it is called “galvanic skin reflex” (RAG). It occurs in humans and moment of excitement when solving intellectual problems, psychological stress.
To record using encephalograph RAG man enough, for example, put two electrodes, one on the hand, the other – on the back of the hand. The EEG chernilnopishuschy mounted device, it writes a pen on the tape straight line. When the time psychological events occur an electric potential difference between the electrodes, the device starts moving the pen up and down. The straight line on the tape is replaced by waves. This is the galvanic skin reflex of a man.
In the experiments with plants we installed the device electrodes in the same way as in the experiments with humans. Only instead of a human hand using a brush surface of the sheet. Who knows what would be the fate of psycho-botanical experiments, if in our laboratory did not appear a graduate student from Bulgaria Georgi Angushev. He studied at the graduate school of the Moscow State Pedagogical Institute named after Lenin. Now, when G.Angushev brilliantly defended his thesis in psychology, and went home, all laboratory staff remember him as a talented researcher and good, charming man.
George Angushev had many advantages. But he had one, especially important for us – it was a good hypnotist. We thought that hypnotized person will be able to more directly and immediately affect the plant. Of the range of people who are hypnotized George Angushev, we selected those who best resisted hypnosis strong>. But this over a limited range of subjects had to work for quite a while before were obtained first encouraging results.
But above all – why it was appropriate to use hypnosis? If the plant is generally able to respond to the psychological state of a person, then most surely it will respond to the strong emotional experience. And fear, joy, sadness? How do I get them to order? Under hypnosis, our problems would be eliminated. A good hypnotist is able to awaken in them the person of deep sleep and, moreover, a variety of pretty strong feelings. The hypnotist is able to include both the emotional sphere of man. This is required for our experiments.
So the actor experiences – student Tanya. It is planted in a comfortable chair at eighty centimeters from the flower. On a flower the electrodes were placed. V.M.Fetisov “wrote” on encephalograph. Our test subject differed unusually lively temperament and very emotional. Perhaps it is this open emotion, the ability to rapidly emerging and strong enough feelings and ensured the success of the experiments. Strong>
So, the first series of experiments. The subjects taught that she is very beautiful. Tanya’s face appears joyful smile. His whole being, it shows that the attention surrounding her really happy. In the midst of these pleasant experiences it was registered the first reaction of a flower: the pen to draw a wavy line on the tape.
Immediately after this experiment the hypnotist said that suddenly ran strong cold wind that was around suddenly very cold and uncomfortable. Mimicry Thani has changed dramatically. His face was sad, sad. She began to tremble, like a man suddenly appeared in the cold in a light summer dress. Flower was not slow to respond to changes in the line and it, too.
After these two successful experiences has been adjourned, the tape unit continued to move, and the pen continues to record a straight line flower. Throughout the fifteen-minute break until the test subject was calm and cheerful, flower shows no “concern.” The line remains straight.
After the break, the hypnotist started again from the cold wind. To a cold wind, he added, has some evil man … it is close to our test. Suggestion acted quickly – our Tatiana worried. Flower reacted immediately: instead of a straight line from the pen device appeared characteristic of the galvanic skin response wave. And then George Angushev immediately switched to pleasant feelings. He began to suggest that cold wind stopped, the sun came out that that around warm and pleasant. And instead of an evil man Tatiana approaching cheerful little boy. Mimicry test sheaf changed. Flower again gave her a wave of RAG.
…So what is next? Then we got the electric response of the flower as many times as they wanted. We signal in a completely random and random Angushev inspired his test is positive, then negative feelings. Another subject flower consistently gave the “right” response to us.
The critical assumption that the relationship between the human senses and the response of the flower does not really exist, that the response of the plant caused by accidental impacts, was rejected by the special test. strong> In between experiments, we at different times included on a flower EEG electrodes. Encephalography working hours and showed no reaction, registered in the experiments. In addition, the electrodes of the other channels encephalograph hung here in the lab. After all, somewhere in the vicinity could be electrical noise, and full on the tape of our device could be the result of a purely electrical action.
We have repeated our experiments many times, and all with the same results. strong> It was the experience and lie detection, widely used in foreign forensics. This experience was so organized. Tatiana asked to conceive any number from one to ten. Hypnotist agreed with her that she will be carefully conceived to hide the number. After that, she began to list the numbers from one to ten. The name of each number, she met with a resounding “No!”. Guess how many she has conceived, it was difficult … Flower gave a reaction by the number “5” – the one that conceived Tanya.
«… Complete detachment from templates» strong>
So, flower and people. Perhaps this sounds paradoxical, but the reaction of the cells of the flower should help understanding the work of the cells of the human brain. Patterns of brain processes strong>, underlying the human psyche, still far from its full disclosure. So we have to look for new methods of research. The unusual “flower” methods should neither embarrass nor stop the researcher; and suddenly by such methods will be able to make at least a small step in uncovering the mysteries of the brain.
Here one comes to mind, unfortunately, little known to the audience a letter Ivan Petrovich Pavlov. This letter was written in March 1914 to mark the opening of the Moscow Institute of Psychology. It is addressed to the founder of the Institute, the famous Russian psychologist, Professor of Moscow State University G.I.Chelpanovu. Here is a remarkable document.
“After the glorious victory of science over the world of the dead came the development and the living world, and in it, and the crown of earthly nature – of the brain. The challenge for this last point so unspeakably great and complex that it required all the resources of mind: absolute freedom, a complete detachment from the template that is possible diversity of points of view and methods of action, etc., to ensure success. All the workers thought, from whatever side they may approach to the subject, everyone will see something on the share, and the shares of all, sooner or later will develop into a resolution of the greatest challenges of human thought … ”
And then follow the significant words, addressed to a psychologist words showing the true attitude of the great physiologist to psychological science: “That’s why I excluded in their laboratory work on the brain slightest mention of subjective states, heartily welcome your psychological institute and you as its creator and creator and warmly wish you full success. ”
It is easy to see how modern it sounds a letter written over half a century ago. [It is now almost a hundred years ago …] The appeal of the great scientist to seek new ways of methods in the disclosure of the secrets of the brain, in the decision “the greatest task of human thought” is particularly relevant now, when carried out a comprehensive approach of representatives of different branches of science in the work of the brain, this , according to Pavlov, the crown of earthly nature. Experience in the development of natural science, especially physics, has shown that we should not be afraid of new discoveries, no matter how paradoxical this may seem to the opening at first glance.
What spoke flowers …
Now conclusions. First conclusion: the living plant cells (flower) reacts on the processes and the nervous system (emotional state). So, there is some commonality of processes that occur in the cells of plants and nerve cells.
Here, it is advisable to remember that in every living cell, including cells of the flower, made sophisticated information processes. For example, ribonucleic acid (RNA) reads from special genetic records and transmits this information to the synthesis of protein molecules. Modern studies of Cytology and Genetics, suggest that each living cell has a very complex information service.
That could mean the reaction of a flower on a person’s emotional state? Maybe between the two information services – the plant cells and the nervous system – there is a connection? Language of the plant cell is akin to the language of nerve cells. And in experiments with hypnosis, these very different groups of cells communicate with each other in this same language. They, these different living cells, were able to sort of “understand” each other.
But the animals, as it is now believed to have originated within the plant, and nerve cells – more recent formation than the vegetable? It can be concluded that the information service of animal behavior arose from the information service of the plant cell.
One can imagine that in a plant cell, in the cell of a flower, in an undifferentiated, compressed there are processes related mental. That is evidenced by the results of Dzh.Ch.Bossa, I.I.Gunara and others. When in the course of development of living creatures appeared, possessing organs of movement that can independently produce their own food, I need another information service. She had a different task – to build more complex models of real objects.
Thus, it turns out that the human mind, no matter how difficult it may be, our perception, thinking, memory – this is only one specialized information service, which takes place at the PA has a plant cell. This conclusion is very important. It allows you to approach the analysis of the origin of the nervous system.
And one more thought. All information is material form of existence strong> .. For example, a novel or a poem, with all the characters and their emotions, can not be perceived by readers, unless there is a sheet of paper with typographic icons. What is the news matter of mental processes, such as human thought?
But chemical molecules nerve cells? These molecules may be in a living being and in being dead.