V. N. Pushkin, “Knowledge is power”, N. 11, 1972.
To begin, perhaps the best, with a detective story. It told the world the American criminologist Baxter. Was the killer and the victim. Was the fact of death. And even witnesses of crimes were. Fortunately, in this murder as the victim did not appear. The killer deprived of life… the shrimp. Narrated by Baxter story contains a description of the model of the crime and not the crime itself. But that does not make it any less interesting.
Baxter on the nature of their direct professional practice conducted experiments with the so-called lie detector. Readers probably heard a lot about this psychological method of crime detection. To describe it impractical. It is a system of thin electronic devices, which you can use to register the emotional processes of man. If a suspect in a crime, when he is shown any object related to the crime, discovers the thrill, the probability of his guilt increased.
Once Baxter came to a head in the highest degree unusual idea: put sensors on the sheet plants. He wanted to find out whether in the plant electrical response in a moment when the next will die a living creature.
The experiment was organized in such a way. Live shrimp put on a plate, mounted on the vessel of boiling water. This plate is turned over per minute, not known even to the experimenter. To do this, used a random number generator. The machine worked well – the shrimp were dropped into boiling water and died. On the tape of the lie detector appeared in the register. On this tape was recorded electrical state of a plant leaf. The experiments were recorded: leaf flower at the time of death of the shrimp changed the course of electrical processes.
…Us, the people by the tumultuous events of the twentieth century, not much will surprise you: too many new unexpected comes to us from the pages of Newspapers and magazines. And yet few people quite so calmly react to the results of Baxter. Plants – witnesses to the crime! It is perceived as some kind of awesome sensation. In such a sensation (which is hard to believe, but about which very ineresno to read) the fact that this bypassed the Newspapers magazines in many countries. And in this noise, a great sensation only to a narrow circle of experts recalled that similar experiments have already been carried out and what exactly those old experiments are of fundamental importance for the whole complex of modern science.
…Study of the great Indian scientist J. H.Boss [Jagadish Chandra Bose Jagadish Chandra Bose, 1858 – 1937 – Indian botanist and physicist.], the works of Soviet researchers Professor Gunar, I. I. and V. G. Karmanov established that plants have senses, they can perceive, process and store information about the outside world. [I.e. brain for the memory organization is completely unnecessary, Sheldrake called it morphogenetics (morphogenic) fields – approx.Ed] the great importance of these wonderful studies for different industries know fully we will evaluate only in the future. [Alas, prophetic words. Maybe it’s time that time be now?!] “Psyche” (in a very special, not yet clearly defined sense of the word), it turns out, in living cells devoid of a nervous system. Can you believe it?
…Century many researchers believed that the plant mind does not need: they don’t have those organs of motion which are in animals even at an early stage of their development. And since there is no movement, no behavior: it is precisely to control them and own mental processes. It is in the cells of this nervous system, in neurons, there are such processes as perception, memory, and all that is called going from ancient times the terms “psyche”, “mental activity”. However, long known responses of plants to the outside world. Sundew, for example, responds to the touch of insects, she catches them with a special propulsion devices. Some plants open their flowers under rays of light. All this is very similar to the simple reflexes of the animal in response to external stimulation. Like… but…
And suddenly: plants are able to distinguish quite complex objects. And not only to distinguish but also to respond to changes in electric potentials. Moreover, the form and nature of these electrical phenomena close to the processes in human skin, when he is experiencing a psychological event.
From the point of view of these truly stunning scientific data, become quite understandable results of the American forensic Baxter. Judging by the publications, his attempt was quite successful. We can assume that flowers and trees capture in their language the culprit, fix it, remember the suffering of the victim.
But no matter how interesting this fact is sharp in terms of human relations, the study of information processes in plants are of interest to scientists from a very different point of view. There is a question of great theoretical importance: what value can have these results for the science of the inner world of man?
But first of all I would like to tell you about research on the psychology of plants, which was me. Began these exploratory experiments member of our laboratory, V. M. Fetisov. He introduced me to publications about the effect of Baxter. He also brought home a flower, common geranium, and began her experiments. In the eyes of colleagues from other laboratories, our experiments seemed more than strange. Indeed, for experiments with colors was used system. It is usually used to study electrical phenomena in cells of the human brain. Using this same device can record the electrical response of the skin, it is called “galvanic skin response” (GSR). It occurs in humans and the moment of excitement, when solving mental problems, psychological stress.
To using the EEG to record GSR of a person, it is enough, for example, put two electrodes: one on the palm, the other on the back party of a brush. In chernilnikova system mounted the device, the pen it writes on the tape a straight line. At the time when a psychological event occurs an electric potential difference between the electrodes, the pen device begins to move up and down. A straight line on the ribbon is replaced by waves. This is the galvanic skin response of a person.
In experiments with plants, the electrodes of the device, we installed the same way as in the experiments with man. Only instead of a brush of a human hand used surface of the sheet. Who knows what would be the fate of psycho-Botanical experiments, if our laboratory has not appeared, a graduate student from Bulgaria Georgy Agusev. He studied in postgraduate study of the Moscow state pedagogical Institute named after V. I. Lenin. Now, when G. Agusev brilliantly defended his thesis in psychology, and went home, all members of the laboratory remember him as a talented researcher and a good, charming man.
George Anguses had a lot of merit. But he had one, especially important for us, – he was a good hypnotist. It seemed to us that hypnotized people will be able to more directly and immediately impact the plant. Of the total number of people who were hypnotized George Anguses, we have selected those who best resisted the hypnosis. But more than a limited number of subjects had to work quite a long time before the first encouraging results.
But first of all – why was it appropriate to use hypnosis? If the plant is able to respond to the psychological state of the person, the more likely it will respond to intense emotional experiences. And fear, joy, sadness? How to get them on order? Under hypnosis our difficulties could be resolved. A good hypnotist is able to arouse in them the sleeping person very different and quite strong emotions. The hypnotist is able to turn on the emotional sphere of the person. This was required for our experiments.
So, the protagonist experiences – student Tanya. She was seated in a comfortable chair in eighty centimeters from the flower. The flower that was put on the electrodes. V. M. Fetisov “wrote” on the front panel. Our test was extremely lively temperament and raw emotion. Perhaps this open emotionality, the ability to rapidly emerging and strong enough feelings and ensured the success of the experiments.
So, the first series of experiments. The test are told that she is very beautiful. On the face of Tanya appears with a joyful smile. All your being it shows that the attention surrounding her really happy. In the midst of these pleasant experiences, was first recorded reaction of the flower: the pen drew on the tape wavy line.
Immediately after the experiment, the hypnotist said that suddenly there came a strong cold wind, everything around suddenly became very cold and uncomfortable. Tanya’s facial expression changed dramatically. Face became sad. She began to tremble, as a man suddenly appeared on the frost in light summer clothing. The flower was not slow to react to the change line for that, either.
After these two successful experiments, a break was made, the ribbon device continued to move, but the pen continued to write down the straight line of the flower. Throughout fifteen-minute break until the test subject was calm and cheerful, the flower didn’t find any “concern”. The line was straight.
After the break, the hypnotist began again with the cold wind. To cold wind, he added another some kind of evil person… he is coming to our test. Suggestion worked – our Tatiana began to worry. Flower immediately reacted: instead of a straight line from the pen of the instrument appeared characteristic galvanic skin response wave. And then George Agusev immediately moved to pleasant feelings. He became convinced that cold wind stopped, the sun came out around warm and pleasant. And instead of an evil man to Tatiana approaching the cheerful little boy. Facial expression test of the sheaf is changed. Flower again gave a wave kGy.
…And then? Then we got the electric reaction of the flower as many times as wanted. In our signal is completely random and in random order agushev the minds of their test was either positive and negative feelings. Another subject flower was invariably given to “own” us reaction.
The critical assumption that this connection between human feelings and reaction of the flower actually does not exist, that the response of plants caused by accidental impacts, was rejected in a special test. In between experiments at different times included on the flower device with electrodes. The system worked for hours and didn’t find the responses registered in the experiments. In addition, electrodes other channels of EEG were hung up here in the lab. Because somewhere nearby could be electrical interference, and full of the ribbon, our device could be the result of this purely electrical effect.
We repeated our experiments many times and all with the same results. Was made the experience and lie detection that are widely used in overseas forensics. This experience was organized. Tatiana was asked to conceive any number from one to ten. The hypnotist agreed with her that she will carefully conceal the number of plans. After that she began to list the numbers from one to ten. The name of each number she was met with a resounding “No!”. Guess what number she’s up to, it was hard… the Flower gave a reaction to the number “5” is the one that conceived Tanya.
“…Complete detachment from the templates”
So, flower and people. Perhaps this sounds paradoxical, but the reaction of the cells of the flower should help the understanding of cellular function of the human brain. The patterns of the brain processesthat underlie the human psyche, is still far from full deployment. So we have to look for new research methods. The unusual “floral” methods should neither embarrass nor to stop the researcher; and suddenly through such methods will be able to make at least a small step in uncovering the mysteries of the brain.
Here I remember one, unfortunately, little known to a wide circle of readers, the letter of Ivan Petrovich Pavlov. This letter was written in March 1914 on the occasion of the opening of the Moscow Institute of psychology. The letter is addressed to the Institute’s founder, the famous Russian psychologist, Professor of Moscow University, G. I. Chelpanov. This is a remarkable document.
“After the glorious victories of science over a dead world came the development and the living world, and in it and the crown of earthly nature – activity of the brain. The challenge for this last item, so unspeakably great and difficult that requires all the resources of thought: complete freedom, complete detachment from the templates as possible the diversity of points of view and ways of acting, etc., to ensure success. All employees of thought, from whatever side they approached the subject, everyone will see something on their share, and the shares of all will sooner or later add up to the solution of the greatest task of human thought…”
And then followed the significant words addressed to the psychologist’s words showing the true relation of the great physiologist to the science of psychology: “That’s why I’m excluding in my laboratory work on the brain any mention of subjective States, I heartily welcome Your Psychological Institute and You, as his Creator and maker, and a fervent wish You full of success”.
It is easy to see how modern it sounds this letter, written more than half a century ago. [Now for almost a hundred years ago…] the Call of the great scientist to search for new methods of ways of discovering secrets of the brain, in addressing “the greatest task of human thought” is particularly relevant now that an integrated approach representatives of different branches of science to the work of the brain, that, in the words of I. P. Pavlov, the crown of earthly nature. Experience in the development of natural science, especially physics, has shown that one should not fear new discoveries, no matter how paradoxical it may seem to open these at first glance.
What said flowers…
And now conclusions. The first conclusion: the living plant cell (the cell of the flower) responds to the processes and the nervous system (emotional state). So, there is a certain commonality of processes that occur in plant cells and in cells of the nervous.
It is useful to remember that in every living cell, including the cells of the flower, perform complex information processes. For example, ribonucleic acid (RNA) reads the information from the gene entry, and passes this information to synthesize protein molecules. Contemporary research in Cytology and genetics indicate that every living cell has a very complex information service.
That may mean that the response of the flower to the emotional state of a person? Maybe between the two information services – plant cells and the nervous system – there is some connection? The plant cell language akin to the language of nerve cells. In experiments with hypnosis, these completely different groups of cells communicated with each other in that same language. These different living cells, was able to “understand” each other.
But the animals, as it is now believed, arose later than the plants, and the nerve cells is of later formation than the plant? It can be concluded that the information service of animal behavior has arisen from the information service of the plant cell.
One can imagine that in plant cell, in the cell of a flower, undifferentiated, compressed processes, related mental. It is evidenced by the results of J. H.Boss, I. I. Gunar and others. When in the development process of the living appeared beings with organs of movement, able to independently produce their own food, it took another information service. She had another purpose – to build more complex models of real objects.
Thus, it appears that the human psyche, no matter how difficult it may be, our perception, thinking, memory – all this is only a specialization of the information service, which is already on the level of plant cells. This conclusion is very important. It allows you to analyze the problem of the origin of the nervous system.
And another meditation. Any information has a physical form of existence.. So, novel, or poem, with all the characters and their experiences cannot be perceived by the readers, if there are no sheets of paper with printing badges. What is the informational substance of mental processes, for example, of human thought?
At different stages of development of science different scientists give different answers to this question. Some researchers as the basis of mind consider the work of nerve cells as an element of the cybernetic computing machines. Such an element can be either enabled or disabled. With this binary language of on and off elements-cells of the brain, according to some scientists, is able to encode the external world.
Analysis of the brain shows, however, that using the theory of binary code you cannot explain the whole complexity of processes that occur in the cerebral cortex. [At the end of the 20th century this position has been proved rigorously mathematically by Roger Penrose, head.the Department of mathematics of Oxford: “a Certain physical action of the brain evokes awareness. But this physical action cannot be computational simulated in any reasonable sense” – Approx.Ed.] It is known that some cells of the cortex reflect the light, other – sound and so on. Therefore, the cell of the cerebral cortex can not only be excited or be inhibited, but also copy the different properties of the objects of the surrounding world. Well, a chemical molecule, nerve cell? These molecules can be located in a living creature, and the creature died. As for psychic phenomena, they are the only property of living nerve cells.
All this leads to the idea of subtle biophysical processes that take place during intracellular molecules. Apparently, this is a psychological encoding. Of course, the position information about the Biophysics can be considered as a hypothesis, then the hypothesis, which is not so easy to prove. [The availability of this Biophysics proved in a quarter-century mathematician, was the leading expert on quantum mechanics Roger Penrose – Approx.Ed..] Note, however, that psycho-Botanical experiments does not contradict it.
Indeed, the stimulus for the flower in the described experiments can be certain biophysical structure. Release it outside the human body comes at a time when the person is experiencing an acute emotional state. This biophysical structure carries information about the person. And then… a picture of the electrical phenomena in a flower like pattern of electrical phenomena in the human skin.
Again and again I emphasize: these are only the scope of the hypotheses. One thing is certain: the study of contact of plant with man can shed light on some fundamental problems of modern psychology. Flowers, trees, leaves, to which we have become accustomed, will contribute to the solution of the greatest task of human thought, about which he wrote I. P. Pavlov.
– END of article.
This article was published over forty years ago. For the proof of Penrose, receives the recognition of the theory of morphogenic fields, Sheldrake
Here I note the following. That plants can Express my feelings to people, was first told the Soviet people in October 1970, then published an article, “What leaves tell us” in the official organ of the ruling party – the newspaper “Pravda”. Now young readers don’t really know what was “Pravda” newspaper in those days. I can only say that random articles here did not appear. Similar article meant only one thing: taboo from the topic now removed. The fact that these experiments much contrary to the official religion of the Communist party, across ideology, the Central core of which was aggressive fanatical “dialectical materialism”. But under the pressure of facts, risking again to get the lag in science, the priests of the celestials began a gradual movement to the “crossing the snake and the hedgehog”.
Here’s what he wrote about the publication in “Pravda” in his collection “Grass” Soviet writer Vladimir Soloukhin, he was struck no less than by the very fact of the existence of intelligence in plants, the lack of response by the human intellect to such a phenomenal, fundamental fact:
“But why it is written black on white in the newspaper, divergent circulation of several million copies, and no one called each other in the excitement, no one was yelling into the phone choking voice:
– Did you hear?! Plants can feel, plants hurt the plants cry plants all remember!”