Ms will always be bad only for those that don’t want to go with pockets turned inside out…
A few years ago, I published the book “Gold in the economy and politics of Russia”1. There I tried to assess the extent of export by the Bolsheviks outside the country of gold. The “yellow metal” (in new York, London, Stockholm, Zurich, etc.) converted into the currency, and the currency placed on accounts at reputable banks.
Between Western banks there was a sharp competition for the money of Soviet Russia and “revolutionary” clients (see the notes from the newspaper “new York times”: Americans jealously reacting to what the Russians prefer to use Swiss banks). So, gold from Russia went through different channels and under different “legends”. It is primarily a “train of gold” and “gold of the Comintern”.
Complete information about what and how much is exported, where exported, to whom issued, the leadership of the country possessed just one. Certainly among them was Vladimir Lenin, Felix Dzerzhinsky, and Lev Trotsky, Joseph Stalin. First two of them soon died. Trotsky was expelled from the country in 1929. Of those who had all the lists in the USSR by the beginning of industrialization remained Stalin. But Stalin knew a lot. As in the years of Exodus the gold of Russia has held important positions: General Secretary of the CPSU(b) and people’s Commissar of rabkrin. The people’s Commissariat of rabkrin (NRKI) was the main regulatory authority of the state (something like our chamber, only on had usedonlarger powers). Stalin was Commissar of inspection from 24 February 1920 to 6 may 1922. As the Secretary General of the party, he was in charge of the Central control Commission of the CPSU(b), which worked closely with the worker-peasant Inspectorate. In General, starting from 1920, Stalin was informed of all covert financial operations of the party, the people’s Commissariat of Finance, the State Bank and the Cheka.
“Train of gold” , which went to Sweden in the form of payment of the order for locomotives for Russian Railways (of course, that Russia has not received all of the locomotives that were foreseen by the contracts, and their prices were inflated). The process of withdrawal of gold abroad was led by Trotsky, who specially for this purpose took (in addition to all the other posts) the post of people’s Commissar of Railways. However, if we talk about Trotsky, he had several output channels of gold abroad. The end point of the”gold of Trotsky” played America, where his cousin, a banker Abram Zhivotovsky. He was a partner of Lev Davidovich and helped to convert the metal into currency and place it in American banks.
“The gold of the Comintern” — supposedly to support the struggle of the Communists of other countries for the victory of the socialist revolution in the world. Recall that in March 1919 in Moscow was held a meeting “ardent revolutionaries” from different countries, where participants agreed to coordinate their efforts in fanning the fire of world revolution”. Was established the Communist international, the Bolsheviks of Soviet Russia promised to his followers not just ideological support, but also financial support. Was organized the output of gold from Russia under the guise of fighting for “world revolution”. However, before the “ardent revolutionaries” in other countries came not all (sometimes almost nothing). The source of the “gold of the Communist international” was the reserves of the people’s Commissariat of Finance. There was also a “party funds”, which was under the personal supervision of Lenin. After the departure of Lenin from the Affairs of state of health the process of withdrawal of gold of the Comintern” led by Gregory Zinoviev, who was the first person in the Comintern.
And besides, there was a large amount of gold in storage NKF did not fall, and walked, bypassing official institutions and accounting from abroad. The gold and other jewels that were confiscated from the population were numb from the Church, were stolen from museums, etc. of Confiscation was supplemented by voluntary and forced sale value of the population to the authorities on the basis of secret decrees of the Central Committee of the RCP(b) from 5 September 1921. Here the circle of “beneficiaries” in the face of the party and state leaders remained wider.
On the extent of export of Russian gold in 1921-1922 indicate the following modern researcher Valeria Shambarova: “…in Stockholm, Olof Aschberg (the Director of one of the Swedish banks, which actively cooperated with the Bolsheviks. — V. K.) had offered “unlimited gold” through Swedish banks. It produced the “washing””. Russian gold was shipped and went to other countries with new brands. Director of the Swedish mint has stated that from 1 January to 22 April 1922 was melted 70 tons of gold. The main part, then went to America. And the new York times carried the front page headline “the Golden flood of the assay chamber,” noting that “for 8 months of 1921 the United States imported gold for 460 million dollars. Of them in the vaults of “Kuhn and Loeb” settled 102,9 mln. …The power of the assay chamber with the melting of such a number could not cope, of the gold were sent to San Francisco2.
Comment on the news of the American newspaper. Based on the fact that the price of gold at that time was about $ 20 per Troy ounce, gold imports amounted to 23 million Troy ounces, which is about 715 tons of metal. Of them in the vaults of “Kuhn and Loeb” was placed more than 5 million Troy ounces, or about 160 tons of metal.
An important role in the implementation of the loot in Russia values played a well-known American entrepreneurs Hummers (the father of Julius and son Armand). Humvees ferried religious values through Tallinn, which was a kind of “green corridor” for illicit operations of the Bolsheviks. In this business also participated Abram Zhivotovsky (banker, uncle of Leon Trotsky), Olaf Aschberg (of the Swedish banker, the head of the Nia-Bank), Sydney Reilly (a British intelligence agent, and several other intelligence services). Modern American historian R. Spencer concludes: “We can say that the Russian revolution was accompanied by the grandest theft in history. Millions and millions of dollars in gold and other valuables disappeared. Other money and funds were secretly transferred from one location to another. And the challenge for people like Sidney Reilly and Julius hammer, was to make such a move possible”3.
Thus, outside of Soviet Russia were taken the vast wealth that has been accumulated over many decades (and maybe centuries) to the Russian Empire.
They had to return in the course of special operations of the 1930-ies… I’d Like to note that the pre-war socialist industrialization was a miracle. I kind of tried to give a version of this “miracle”: it was done using money expropriated by Stalin in “ardent revolutionaries”. However, this explanation is incomplete and superficial. Ultimately, this “miracle” had been achieved exclusively through the work of our people. Not only those who contributed to the live work, directly working on the shock construction sites of the first five. But also those whose contribution had the form of a “materialized” labor. That is, many generations of the Russian people, who have created and accumulated vast wealth by the beginning of the twentieth century.
1 Katasonov V. Yu. Gold in the economy and politics of Russia. — M.: Ankil, 2009.
2 ve shambarov the alien Conspiracy: conspiracy against the Empire. — M.: Algorithm, 2007. — Pp. 461-462; see also: E. Sutton wall street and the Bolshevik revolution. — M.: Russian idea, 1998; Merkulov, D. N., Bobrovnik V. M. the Counter-revolution and Russia’s national idea. — M., 2003.
3 op. CIT. by: Samburov V. E. Decree. CIT. — p. 511