“To stop the pass arrived, as usual, the Mongols — fly like the eagles of the steppe. Surprise — one of them knew a few words in Russian: “Moscow”, “Komintern”, “international”, “Lenin”, “Karl Marx”, “Browning” and “revolver”.
(K. N. Ryabinin. “Debunked Tibet”. Part 1. Urga-Yum-Bays. Steppe eagles. Lenin and Karl Marx in the wilderness)/1/.
1. The coat of arms of barons von Ungern-Sternberg:
“Shield cetverokatnice with a small silver shield in the middle, means Golden six-pointed star over a green three-headed hill. In the first m fourth parts in a blue field three Golden lilies (2+1). In the second and third parts in a gold field silver rose with gold inside rim and three of her green leaves in the tilted viloobraznym cross. On the shield of the Swedish baronial crown over it and two noble crowned helmet. The crest: the right — column of the woven braid of silver and gold rods, between the gold and the blue eagle’s wings; the left — a six-pointed Golden star between two peacock tails, six feathers each (2+2+2). Namet crossed blue gold green silver chess”
2. The court unjust
13 Sep 1921, before the court of the revolutionary Tribunal in Novonikolaevsk (not yet renamed by the Bolsheviks at that time in Novosibirsk has appeared the head of the Asian Cavalry division, Lieutenant General Baron Roman Fedorovich von Ungern-Sternberg, an implacable enemy of the Bolsheviks and a staunch monarchist, who conquered Russia, Mongolia, married Church marriage (Lutheran rite) Princess of the Manchu Qing dynasty, liberated the head Lama of the “yellow faith,” living Buddha! — Bogd Gegen from the red Chinese, the Mongols declared to be grateful to “the White God of War, dreamed of creating a spiritual-Buddhist military orders for the liberation of Russia, Europe and the world from the Marxist plague and issued by a despicable bunch of traitors servants of the Third international.
Baron Ungern, who did not believe until the last day in the death at the hands of Bolshevik murderers of Grand Duke Mikhail Alexandrovich, with the blessing of Bogd Gegen led his Cossacks, Buryats, Mongols and Tibetans in the battle under the banner of the face of the Saviour with the monogram of the Emperor Michael II. In its released already after the execution of the Baron, the political utopia of the “Thistle”, Supreme Ataman of the great don army, ardent patriot and indomitable fighter against Bolshevism, General P. N. Krasnov gave regained the throne of the Romanovs in Russia, the Emperor Vsevolod Mikhailovich (son of Mikhail Alexandrovich and an Indian Princess) who have returned to ruined by Bolsheviks, the country of Tibet, the traits of the Baron Ungern. The prototype accompanying the Cossack ataman Palace was another implacable enemy of Bolshevism — ataman Annenkov also fallen victim to the deceit and dishonesty of the servants of agents of the Comintern, treacherously seized and doomed him to death.
However, similar was the fate of the other Cossack leaders, for example, atamans Dutov, Annenkov, Krasnov, Shkuro and Semenov. The steppe knights, they used to fight with the enemy the old-fashioned way, in an open field on the right horse, with a sharp sword in his hand. And was killed by black betrayal from the dastardly stab in the back…And therefore to all the chiefs of the Cossacks, perhaps, can be applied the poet’s words, said about Stepan Razin:
Not the Lord, he was brought to Moscow,
Honor is not bestowed by a guest,
And not a military leader, on horseback and with a sword,
And in a shameful battle with a villain-the executioner
He folded up his violent bone…
The fate of Baron Ungern, as always in such cases, was a foregone conclusion before the trial, a Comedy; for such a bitter enemy of Bolshevism, the verdict could be only one: death. But red chief, the Prosecutor, the notorious Gubelman-Yaroslavsky, suddenly decided finally to show off on a defenseless prisoner. Deciding to play “Russian national feelings of the public at their most ignoble, the “ardent internationalist” tried to imagine Ungern vile offspring of the “Baltic barons” always “sucked of Russian blood” and supposedly at the same time “selling it.” And the Prosecutor asked mocking tone:
“What did your kind in the Russian service?”
Baron Ungern replied calmly:
“Seventy-two killed in the war”.
This episode could very well serve as the epigraph to the difficult fate of Roman von Ungern-Sternberg, the whole race which was shed for the Great Russia on the battlefields of the blood forever sealed his unwavering loyalty to the Fatherland, which would be treasonous labels are not sculpted in the name of “Ungern” fosterling and the last Bolshevik “party of national betrayal”.
3. The personality of Baron R. F. von Ungern-Sternberg.
Baron Roman (Robert-Nicholas-Maximilian) Fedorovich von Ungern-Sternberg (not “Ungern von Sternberg” as is often incorrectly written), a Scion of one of the oldest feudal aristocratic families of the Baltic region, whose ancestors were knights of the Sword and took an active part in the Crusades, was born 29 Oct 1885 in Reval (now Tallinn). The family of barons von Ungern-Sternberg was introduced to the noble matricula all three Baltic provinces. Official his ancestor was Hans von Ungern, who lived in the XIII century. Baronial dignity was granted Ungern-Sternberg Swedish Queen Christinas in 1653
Initially, Roman von Ungern-Sternberg entered the Naval cadet corps in 1902), but after two and a half years, my stepfather was forced to take him out, because to this point, according to housing authorities, “his behavior…you have achieved the highest score and continued to deteriorate.” /3/ is Expressed primarily in the “chronic” failure Ungern internal regulations of the Body. By the way, it should be noted that in the Russian Imperial Navy were many representatives of the ancient Baltic family von Ungerne /4/.
After leaving the Marine corps, Roman Ungern went to the Russo-Japanese war, by enrolling as a volunteer in the 91st infantry regiment of the Dvina (as can be seen from the photos taken during this period). However, the war he went to another shelf, but the little-known pages of the biography of Baron R. F. Ungern we will return. To war with the “monkeys” (as it was then in Russia, at least in the beginning of the armed conflict with the Country of the Rising Sun, disparagingly referred to the Japanese) he has failed, as when the arrival of a young descendant of the sword to the far Eastern front the war was over. Roman Fedorovich continued his education in the Pavlovsk school of infantry,which after graduating in 1908, he chose to become a cavalryman and was released as cornet of the 1st Argun regiment of the TRANS-Baikal Cossack troops. The regiment was based at the railway station Dauria between Chita and the Chinese border. Due to duel the Baron was from the Argun regiment was transferred to the Amur, the only regular regiment of the Amur Cossack army.
When in 1911 in China broke the “Xinhai” revolution against the Manchu Qing dynasty, Baron Ungern volunteered to the West of Mongolia, where the rebellious people was fighting with the troops of China, 220 years to keep Mongolia under his rule. Together with other Russian Cossack officers he was helping to create an army of independent Mongolia, from the outset, focused on an Alliance with the Russian Empire the great Tsagan-Khan (of the White King, as the Mongols have long called the all-Russian Emperors /5/). It is possible that in these years the foundations were laid for his later popularity among the Mongols.
Together with Grigory Mikhaylovich Semyonov, the future Ataman of the Transbaikal Cossack army, Roman Fedorovich Ungern served under the command of Baron Peter Nikolaevich Wrangel, the future commander of the white Russian Army in South Russia in 1919-1920, in the 1st Nerchinsk regiment of Zabaikal Cossack troops operating in the First world (or, as it was then called, the great war in the South-Western front. Preserved the characteristic of R. F. Ungern, signed by P. N. Wrangel:
“Excellent officer, is not lost in any situations. Prone to drunkenness…” /6/.
A little-known page in the biography of Baron Ungern is serving in the cavalry detachment of special importance at the headquarters of the Commander of the Northern front under the command of Lieutenant L. N. Punina. Partisan group Punina (and then some) was formed in late 1915, Before the show on the front 18 December, the commander turned to his men with a speech in which he described the contribution of each of the officers of the detachment. He expressed gratitude to the centurion and R. F. von Ungern-Sternberg: “…who put so much soul in violently loving you and was able to make slim order in our friendly life” /7/. R. F. von Ungern-Sternberg was in command of the detachment Punina 3rd squadron. Interestingly, in this same unit, commanded the 2nd squadron of Kornet S. N. Balakhovich — the future of the dashing guerrilla, a well-known figure in the White movement in Northwest Russia during the civil war. Here is how one of the fight sequences in the order of his commander:
“On January 24. Exploration is extremely successful … the 3rd squadron went to the especially. Him when you return home /to the city Kemeri — note. the author of the book/ had to endure a battle with the ambush of the Germans on the hill between the swamp, Salais-purs and our trenches. The Germans were about a company with two officers. They did not let our Cossacks closer to himself, fired a volley. A moment of stupor. George knight, a commander of a squadron of centurion Baron Ungern-Sternberg with a naked sword rushed in “cheers”. Whoop and a howl, with drawn swords rushed assurity, narcissi and Primorye for three times as strong (as in the text — V. A. N. To.) of the enemy. The Germans such pressure broke and fled, leaving the dead…”/8/.
It is for actions in the detachment of Roman Fedorovich was promoted to the rank of captain. According to the testimony of commander, Baron Ungern was one of the bravest partisans, of which intelligence was the most effective.
26 Feb 1916 he was wounded and for a time left the squad /9/. In the future the detachment he fought until the end of September, 1916, until the Ussuri brigade of the 4th Cavalry division was transferred from the North to the South-Western front /10/.
With the name of the dashing Baron has always been associated with many legends. About Ungerne wrote and told different — some of his chivalrous character, high morals and integrity, from his aspiration to restore the Great Russia; some of his mysticism and belief in the existence of the mysterious countries of Shambhala and Agharti, from whence cometh the salvation of the world and the death of the decadent West that gave rise to red mold; some of his incredible cruelty, forced to remember the horrors of the middle Ages.
Perhaps most appropriate would be to give you a few thoughts from the book the Cossack captain Makeyev, former adjutant of the commander of the Asiatic cavalry division:
“…Years passed, and now you will not find any of ungerova that wouldn’t have kept the memory of his cruel and sometimes wildly ferocious boss. Baron Ungern was an exceptional man who did not know in his life of compromises, a man of complete integrity and of insane courage. He genuinely sick soul of enslaved red beast Russia, painfully perceived all that was fraught with red murk, and dealt harshly with suspected. Being an ideal officer, Baron Ungern with the utmost delicacy belonged to the officers, which did not escape the General ruin, and which, in a number that showed the instincts which are not appropriate the officer ranks, These people, the Baron was punished with relentless severity, while the soldier masses to his arm touched very rarely.
Creating a class for the discipline and efficiency of the Asian Cavalry Division, Ungern always said that or they lay down their heads, or will bring the fight with the Reds until the end.
Neither that, nor another is not true. The Baron died, and the reason for this was he…amid a brutal civil struggle Baron Ungern inadvertently crossed the line of what is permitted even in this red-and-white pandemonium and died. It had to be so talked about this, the Karma, which is often mentioned, the Chief of the Asian cavalry division. Much to his death and the deaths of first-class fighting division played some close, which, by some mysterious law, always surrounded by leaders that appeared on the background of the civil war for the White idea.
And these doomed leaders were well considered infamous role their criminal henchmen, but again, at the behest of some evil fate, were not able to cast them away as a moral carrion, infecting the air.
Over the years the voices of those of enernova, which has experienced severe blows baronial tesoura /11/, they began to talk about his former military commander, only good. That suggests that Baron Roman von Ungern-Sternberg was an exceptional person, and if not destroy his inexorable fate, he and his Asian Cossacks would play, maybe a crucial role in the fight against the red Beast for Orthodox Russia” /12/.
I. I. Serebrennikov in his book “the Great departure” wrote Baron Ungerne:
“It…living faith in the supernatural, otherworldly; as if he belonged to the last centuries: was superstitious, always communicated with llamas, soothsayers and astrologers, who accompanied him in his campaigns during the civil war…the Baron was a kind of a romantic, lived in the power of some abstract ideas. Fantastic dream it was to restore the fallen monarchies of the world: he wanted to return Urginskaya Bogdo-Gegen, his Royal throne in Mongolia, to restore the dynasty of Tsin in China, the Romanov in Russia, Hohenzollern in Germany. In this sense, he is hopelessly swimming against the tide. Speaking it for many years later — he probably would have more chances of carrying out his political program.
Ungern was the worst enemy of the Communists and socialists, and believed that the West-Europe is possessed by the madness of revolution and the moral is in the deepest fall, castlevani from top to bottom. The words “Bolshevik” and “Commissioner” in the mouth of Ungern’s always sounded angry and usually accompanied by the word “hang”. In the first two words for him was the cause of all ills and evils, the destruction which should come upon the earth universal peace and universal prosperity. The Baron was dreaming about the birth of a new Attila, which will bring together Asian hordes and again, like God’s beach, will instruct and enlightened corrupt Europe. Probably, the Baron and prepared myself for the role of Attila.”
The St. Petersburg writer, became associate Ungern in the last days before going in Transbaikalia, Ferdinand Ossendowski, wrote that the Baron had twice sent a Mongol Prince Pontiga to Tibet to look for the entrance to the underground country Agharti, where, according to the Lamaist tradition, is Chakravartin /13/, the King of the World, the spiritual Lord of mankind, keeps the secrets of true Initiation. The first time Ungern messenger returned with a letter and a blessing from the Dalai Lama. The second time he did not return. Attempt to incarnate the God of war to establish contact with the spiritual Center of the world, obviously, failed. Agarti door not swung open in front of him. However, this did not detract from the resilience and determination of the Baron to continue on his destined path.
Ungern was certainly cruel in their anti-Bolshevik struggle I. perhaps, the only all White leaders not only in words but also in deeds opposed bolszewicka red terror equal to the cruelty of the white terror. As the saying goes, “fight fire…”
However, all of the above is the most common “historiosophical” version of the motivation for the actions of Ungern. Meanwhile, there is another version, based on a deep analysis of historical sources Dating back to the era of Ungern and advanced to our old and longtime acquaintance, the famous modern Russian historian of the White movement A. S. by Kruchinina. According to her, their actions — in particular, Hiking on the territory of the Soviet Transbaikalia, Baron Ungern was supposed to solve the specific task of liberating Russia from the Bolsheviks, not the idea itself, the “new Genghis Khan”, and soberly assessing the relative strength of their division, and troops subordinate to the Ataman G. M. Semenov. In particular, “rate first on the Siberian rebels and white partisans, the total strength of which…exceeded the Russian troops of “Western flank”, which included and interned by the Chinese authorities” /14/ 1.5 times, and also proclaimed by Order No. 15 of the rule of local commanders (“the Total team goes to the chief, who led a continuous struggle against the Soviet Commissars in Russia, and, regardless of rank, age and education) and an interesting principle of staff rotation (“In mobilizing men to use their combat work, not further than 300 miles from the place of their permanent residence. After the replenishment of the units desired the number of available weapons, the new fighters, the former originating from the released from the red areas to go home”), explicitly refute the arguments about the “cleansing storm from the East”, which supposedly sought to bring the blades of their Mongol warriors Ungern in the name of building the “Yellow Empire” /15/.
In the end of their study, A. S. Kruchinin comes to the conclusion that “in the pursuit of romantic beautiful Russian General Baron Ungern denied last posthumous law — to go down in history the same loyal soldier of Russia, which he was all his life” /16/. And this conclusion is hard to disagree. However, in our opinion, will be a long time before they are thoroughly examined and understood all the historical sources (both archives and memoirs) related to the Baron Ungern, and his character and motivations of his actions will appear to us in a clear form (to the extent possible, given the remoteness of these events in time from us).
All who knew Baron Ungern noted his great personal courage and fearlessness. Present evidence D. P. Pershin — contemporary Ungern, a well-known Siberian ethnographer and publicist, who witnessed many of the events that occurred in Mongolia in 1920-1921:
“Camp life and the habit of command, to live in narrowly military environment still imposed some imprint of army military service, although barely noticeable. In General he gave the impression of a rather closed nature. For reviews of persons standing close to him, he quickly succumbed to the minute outbreaks, particularly if it related to discipline and duty, and, mainly, were contrary to his monarchical ideas. Drink and food it was mild and undemanding, especially in relation to the latter. Was besserebrennikov (as in the text Pershin V. A., N. To.) and different absolute honesty. It was a man, who, by their nature, skills, and actions somehow did not fit into the framework of modern life. He had many positive qualities — reckless courage, selflessness and complete undemanding in material terms to others and yourself, and cleanliness in their relationships to people. He was ready to live and lived like the simplest Cossack in his group, and often showed concern, and touching kindness to colleagues. But at the same time, he was at times crazy, like something in a medieval ruthlessly cruel and extremely superstitious, too medieval. He sought communion with the spirit world, and it is almost always accompanied by Lama-astrologers and their predictions he believed in and did nothing without first poladauri from his Lama-storici (astrologer)”/17/.
And here is an excerpt from the memoirs of the Ataman G. M. Semyonov:
“The valor of Roman was out of the ordinary…Along with this he had a sharp mind, capable of penetrating deeper into the field of philosophical judgment on the issues of religion, literature, and military science. At the same time, he was a great mystic by nature, believed in the law of retaliation and was religious without bigotry. This is the last religion they hated how all the lies, which had fought all my life” /18/.
The conclusion to the story of the personality of Baron R. F. von Ungern-Sternberg will focus on one of the episodes of his biography, been unfairly overlooked by researchers. We are talking about awarding him the order of sacred great Martyr and Pobedonostsa George 4-th degree. Ungern always proudly wore this highest military award of Russia. It is represented with her, and the most famous photos taken in captivity by the Reds. Most of the researchers mention that the Baron was awarded with the order during the great war. Leonid Yuzefovich, the author of perhaps the most famous in Russia book about Ungern — “the Autocrat of the desert, writes:
“…Ungern had one George cross…” /19/ obviously not making a difference between a soldier’s award of distinction of the Military order (St George cross) and officer of the order of St. George. Calls Baron George knight and the commander of the Detachment of special importance during the great war, mentioned by us above Lieutenant Puning. In the literature it is not mentioned anywhere that the Baron R. F. von Ungern-Sternberg was awarded the highest military award of the Russian Empire. Meanwhile, in the Russian state military archive, we have identified an interesting document:
For Individual Native Cavalry Division
3 Mar 1919 Str(yy) mountains(odok) Dauria
Major-General Ungern-Sternberg (novel) by order of the St. George Duma on the basis of article 8 and 33 of the Statute, awarded the order of St. Of St. George 4-th century. Special Manchurian Detachment because, in commanding a platoon in January 1918, disarmed the garrison of Hailar in the battalion.
Reference: The Order Of The Separate Eastern Siberian Army, No. 61, §3.
Authentic signed: Head of a division Colonel Usachev /20/.
With a true copy: Senior adjutant, captain (signed) /21/.
However, it should be noted that awards special Manchurian detachment often duplicate awards of the Russian Empire, so it can be assumed that Ungern was twice a knight of St. George. Disarmament and sending into Russia degraded, as a result of revolutionary propaganda, garrison station of Hailar occurred in mid-January 1918 (December 19, 1917, a similar operation was carried Semenov, Ungern, together with the station Manchuria, only then the ratio of disarming and disarming was 7:1500…). According to the memoirs of the Ataman Semenov, in Hailar events occurred as follows:
“It was established that on the day of the supposed disarmament Committee of the garrison was to have a meeting around 11 an hour. PM. This time we decided to use to disarm the barracks. The number of the garrison reached 800 bayonets, we had 250 horse bargut /22/ and one hundred shtabs-captain of Miaka…Disarmament was made by Baron Ungern for less than two hours time so painless that the garrison Committee, which met at that time, did not even know about what happened…”/23/. As you can see, in the course of this operation Ungern managed to avoid bloodshed, but at the same time, he was able to accomplish the task, which significantly contributed to the strengthening of antibolshevik forces in Transbaikalia.
4.The organizational structure of the Asian cavalry division
Private native military brigade, was formed on 1 September 1918, composed of the 2nd and 3rd Daurian (3rd soon received the name of Hamar) cavalry regiments and an artillery battery (order at the Special Manchurian detachment No. 210, dated September 23, 1918).
Orders to the troops of the 5th corps of the Amur # 2 and # 5, dated 11 and 19 October, 1918 the brigade was deployed in a separate Native mounted division and renamed in the Native.
The order to the troops of the separate Eastern Siberian army No. 41 of December 8, 1918 and formed a separate Indigenous Buryat horse division was consolidated in the Native cavalry corps, and the headquarters of a separate Native cavalry division renamed as the headquarters of the Native cavalry corps (the order in case No. 71 of March 29, 1919).
The order to the troops of the separate Eastern Siberian army, No. 157 of may 12, 1919, the corps was renamed the Asian and Native title division, in connection with the occurrence of it in the case, excluded the word “individual”.
On the basis of the order of the chief of staff of the Supreme commander of No. 470 dated may 28, 1919, the separate Eastern Siberian army was reformed in the 6th East Siberian army corps and part of the army corps — in the division. The order to the troops of the 6th East Siberian army corps No. 1 of 18 June 1919, control buildings, including Asian, was facing the formation of the departments divisions.
From the Asian parts of the body was formed of the Asian cavalry division consisting of three brigades: two cavalry (the 1st Daur and Hamar, the 2 nd — 1st and 2nd Buryat regiments), and mixed ethnic military artillery (4 batteries + battery special purpose bandaging detachment). By order of the assistant commander of the Amur Military District No. 193 dated 22 September 1919 Hamar, the regiment was renamed into Tatar.
The orders of the assistant commander of the Amur military district No. 302 dated October 11, and No. 398 of November 6, 1919, the Asian cavalry division was disbanded and formed two separate horse brigade — Asian (1st Tatar (ex. Tatar) and 2nd Tatar (ex. 2nd Buryat) horse regiments) and the Mongol-Buryat (Buryat (ex. 1st Buryat) and Daur cavalry regiments.
By order of the assistant commander of the Amur military district No. 388, dated 1 November 1919, when the brigade was formed on the Asian horse-artillery battalion.
By order of the commander in chief of all the armed forces of the Far East and the Irkutsk military district No. 131 dated February 5, 1920, by order of the Asian cavalry division No. 1, dated February 7, 1920 Asian cavalry brigade was renamed the Asian cavalry division. In was composed of two brigades: 1st: 1st and 2nd cavalry regiments Tatar, Mongol horse battalion; 2nd: 1st and 2nd Buryat and Mongol-Buryat horse regiments, Asian horse artillery battalion. Part of the 2nd brigade, in the Buryat cavalry brigade (formed on the basis of the order to the troops of the Transbaikal military district No. 109 of 6 December and the marching ataman of the Cossack troops of the far Eastern No. 77 dated December 22, 1919).
By order of the Commander in chief of all armed forces of Russian East surburb No. 231 of 16 March 1920, the division was directly subordinate to the Commander-in-chief, and from 21 may 1920 — commander of the far Eastern army (his order No. 467 dated 23 June 1920).
By order of the Commander in chief of all armed forces of Russian East surburb No. 67/A, dated 7 August 1920, the division was reformed into a guerrilla group.
In August 1920 a detachment voluntarily went to the borders of Mongolia in the area of Aksha, in early September, entered into the Central zone and order the troops far East army No. 463 of September 29, 1920, was expelled from the army. After moving to the territory of Mongolia, the detachment was again cited as the Asian cavalry division.
Baron Ungern obeyed and other Russian detachments in Mongolia, Colonel N. N. Casagrande, the Yenisei Cossack army’s ataman Kazantsev, I. G. and captain P. A. Kaygorodova.
The commander of the brigade, division, corps: major-General von Ungern-Shternberg, Roman Fedorovich. Chief of staff: Colonel Aksenov Vladimir (1919), the General staff Colonel Eugene Zhukovsky, Colonel Ostrovsky.
The brigade commander: major-General I. B. Rezukhin. The regimental commanders: Colonel V. I. Siditsky, army captain Circulante, Colonel Likhachev, an army captain Markov, captain Zabiyakin, Colonel Parygin, Colonel Trunks, Ochirov. The commanders of batteries, captain Dmitriev, the captain Popov, head of the convoy, V. K. Roerich, /24/, commandant of Urga Colonel Leonid sipila (Sipailou)/25/.
5. Weapons and supplies of the Asian cavalry division
In 1920 in the division, there were up to 4,000 Russian and 2,000 Asians, in June 1921 — 3500 sabers. The weapons available in the division, was the most diverse, owing to the Civil war (primarily the absence of any centralized supply). Besides, it tried to adapt to local conditions )is primarily concerned with artillery). According to Leonid Yuzefovich, at the time of the speech division in the last campaign in Transbaikalia, there were about 20 machine guns and 8 guns. The orders of the division mentioned 6 mountain guns of the sample in 1877, received in the spring of 1919 from Chita artillery warehouse, /26/. According to the testimony of Ungern, with the capture of Urga was captured by the Chinese, 12 guns, 14 machine guns and a large number of ammunition /27/. According to the documents, was applied and machine guns Shosha system, Hotckiss, and possibly other systems. The main personal weapon ranks of the division were rifles, carbines (which the division had in abundance, especially in the “Mongolian” period), revolvers and bombs. The arms of ungerova was as Patriotic “trehlineyki”, and Japanese “arisaka”. Widely used Japanese edged weapons — bayonets and swords.
According to Leonid Yuzefovich, by order of Baron Ungern in Urga, with the participation of A. F. Ossendowski is a professional chemist — conducted secret experiments to develop chemical weapons. However, these experiments were not brought to the end — judging by the fact that chemical weapons in the Arsenal “barancev” never appeared.
A few words about the supply of the ranks of the division. According to Ungern, the salary he was paid from time to time, when there was money. As a food allowance for each rider issued the so-called “Genghis Khan’s rations” (!) — more than half a kilograms of meat a day. The Mongols were given to three sheep per month per person and a pot of flour for two days. Per month supply division required about 2000 bulls. Wrote one of the contemporaries of that period, hiding under the pseudonym “Durez” (by the way, foe Ungern):
“Rest assured: the Baron’s people will not be hungry and naked, you will not see them” /28/
6. The banner of the Asian cavalry division
In his book on the Baron Ungerne “the Autocrat of the desert” by L. Yuzefovich writes (though without reference to specific source) that on the banner of the division was weaved by gold “Michael II”. A similar banner is stored in the Society of Russian veterans of the great war in San Francisco (USA). It is made of yellow silk (satin), with the edge white and black Mongolian material marked in black and red color images. On the front side of the banner is the inscription in Slavonic letters “GOD WITH US” on the face of the Saviour. On the reverse side of the banner is the monogram “M II” under the Crown of the Russian Empire with two 12-beam star on the sides, and beneath the monogram is the date: “1921” /29/.
7.Uniforms and insignia
Baron Ungern attached great importance to external attributes of their troops. Many of the projects of the uniform ranks of the division were developed by him personally. But because of the work of the Asian division has survived quite a bit, full of ideas about the form his division to be almost impossible. So let’s try, based on the few surviving documents and witnesses, to reconstruct individual elements in the form of ungerova and insignia ranks of the Asian cavalry division.
In Dauria Baron Ungern wore round Mongolian hat and cherry red silk Mongolian robe, Golden epaulettes (coded “A.” — “Ataman Semenov”), with a target at a far distance can be seen the army.
Despite the fact that in the Civil war, to strictly observe the shape of the garment was very difficult, Baron Ungern and Semenov, Ataman has consistently endeavoured to achieve this. In support we give the order on the 3rd Equestrian Hamar regiment No. 12 of 12 January 1919, signed by the commander of a regiment of army officer Chuprov:
“I declare herewith order on the East Siberian army from 12 December m(nuvshego) g(ode) for No. 12 for the performance, temporarily, in the absence of the sale of lace, you are allowed to wear uniform protective color, but at the first event. officers are required to attend to acquire Gasunie straps”. Genuine signed by the garrison commander Colonel von Ungern-Sternberg” /30/.
Documented the introduction of shoulder straps for nastroenij ranks of the division on 22 January, 1920, by order of the division No. 25 to the ranks of the Commissariat (red box), veterinary hospital (blue box) and workshops (the purple box). In the same order, ordered: n…to attend to the manufacture of shoulder straps and stencils in the shortest possible time, and the captains of the teams in receipt from the workshops = immediately sew any in overcoats, uniforms and shirts” /31/.
The next day, by order No. 26 were approved shoulder straps for paramedics, nurses and other medical lower ranks — blue field with the red cross./32/. Letter “D” on the shoulder straps represents, most likely, Daura — military town, where in the described period was based the division of Ungern. Color coded messages and letters in the order is not specified, but it can be assumed that they were yellow. Before the performance on the territory of the Russian Baron in his celebrated order number 15, introduced the item nestroeny ordering all ranks to wear the shoulder straps across the shoulder. But this order has caused such an uproar that Ungern was forced to cancel /33/.
As a reward for the liberation of Mongolia from the red Chinese Bogd Gegen, in addition to the title Ching-WAN, was awarded Ungaro and higher, available only Chingisids (the descendants of Genghis Khan blood), Khan’s title with the title of “Revived State of Great Baatar (hero) Commander.” The title gave the Baron the right to the same symbols of power as that of the khans — the rulers of the four aimag (provinces) of the Khalkha (Inner Mongolia) yellow silk (satin) robe (“Daly” or “Kurma”) and yellow boots, horse halters the same sacred yellow, green sedan chair, the palanquin, and three peacock’s feathers (“Ocho”) on the hat. As your still cherry, the Baron transformed given him Bogd Gegen Khan’s yellow gown in a semi-Russian, semi-Oriental uniform and wore it with a General’s epaulets, sword belt, waist belt and the order of St. George.
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