Tsarist Russia in the XIII – XVIII centuries. was a great Empire, its wealth and power surpassing all other countries.
In 1719, Andrey Konstantinovich Nartov was sent to London to familiarize themselves with British equipment and for the invitation English masters. From London Nartov wrote to the King that in England the masters, which could exceed Russian masters, no. Nartov visited Paris. There he shared some of the secrets of the lathe business with the Duke of Orleans, who considered himself a Turner fan, but all the secrets fully reveal he was not going to.
In the XVII century around the world, except Russia, working on a lathe, the master kept the cutter in hand, bringing it to a rotating object subjected to processing. To hand Turner didn’t get tired and trembling, on the machine frame arranged in the armrest. In Russia in the construction of machines had a very important node – movable caliper mounted thereon the cutter.
In “Literaturnaya Gazeta” № 142 (3015), 25 Nov. 1952 there was a message about being in GPB im. M. E. Saltykov-Shchedrin in Leningrad manuscripts of A. K. Nartov called “Teatrum mechanism or clear sight Mahin”. The book is written in 1755. It includes the description of 26 original designs of machine tools. The book tells about the creation of a mechanical caliper.
Under Peter I in factories in the mechanisms already used cylinder-conical gear. In the USA it was patented only in two hundred and twenty years.
Pocket William in his work on the history of arms wrote: “Argue that the August Kotter or a Boat from Nuremberg made rifled barrels already in 1520, however, because in one of the Paris museums rifled guns of 1616 marked with the same name, it is possible that in this matter there was some misunderstanding” [Pocket William. History of firearms: From earliest times to the twentieth century. A History of Firearms: From Earliest Times to 1914. Centerpolygraph, 2006].
“Virtualnye squeaked” as they are sometimes called in the inventories of the Armoury chambers, appeared in Russia in the middle of the XVI century. They were armed with archers. Russian horsemen in the XVI century began to use firearms – “rocznica”.
The representative of Vienna John Cobenzl wrote to the Emperor Maximian II, “the Russians Have always at the ready no less than 2000 any guns. I was assured solemnly that, in addition to others, only two seats are stored two thousand guns with a lot of diverse Mahin. Some of these guns are so great, wide and deep that a tall man in full armor, standing at the bottom of the gun, can’t get it to the top”[of the Letter I. Cobenzl on Muscovy. ZHMNP, no. 9. 1842. Otd. 2. P. 150].
Cannon cast by A. Chokhov was used during the Northern war of 1700-1721, as they were very durable [Volkov Russian artillery (late 15th-first half of 17 centuries), electronic version].
Russian gunsmiths of the world’s first applied to the inner gun barrel spiral rifling. To our days have survived the musket 1615 with ten grooves, but, apparently, rifled guns were made in Russia in the XVI century. In Western Europe, rifled guns appeared only in the late XVII century.
In 1880, the German gunsmith F. Krupp conceived a patent he invented the V-gate, but when he saw the Artillery Museum of St. Petersburg musket of the seventeenth century, who had a pinch bolt, on the invention of which he fought all his life, has experienced an ideological shock: Western Europe lagged behind the forefront of the nation for several centuries.
The English Admiral and naval historian Fred Thomas Jane wrote: “Russian Navy, which is considered a relatively late institution, founded by Peter the Great, has in reality no right to the antiquity than the British fleet. A century before Alfred the Great, who reigned from 870 to 901 year built British ships, Russian ships fought in sea battles. The first sailors of their time they were – Russian”(Jane, Fred T. Imperial Russian navy : its past, present, and future. – L. W. Thacker & Co, 1899. – R. 23).
The black sea military fleet under the command Adasheva gave battle to the Turkish flotilla. About a dozen Turkish ships were burned, two ships were captured. Further pathetic attempts of the Turkish fleet to defeat our fleet were unsuccessful. The Crimean khanate, it seemed, was living his last days: Russian in three weeks have devastated the Karaite settlement, brought considerable income to the Treasury of the Sultan.
The Baltic fleet also had time to establish itself. In 1656 the King is moved to release down the entire coast of the Baltic sea. Patriarch Nikon has blessed the “naval officer-commander Peter Potemkin” “go for Sveyskoy overseas to the Varangian sea, Stellino and Dale” (London? – ed.). The corps of cadets consisted of 1 570 people. 22 Jul 1656 “naval Governor” Potemkin undertook a military expedition. He went to the island of Kotlin, where they found the Swedes. The outcome of the naval battle he reported to the King, “Polychoral took sveyskoy people to beat, and the captain Irek Delshire, dress, and banners taken, and on the Kotlin island latyshskie village carved and burned”. About Estonians mentions he didn’t leave… You can’t guess why?
During the Russo-Turkish war 1672-1681. in the sea came a squadron under the command of Gregory Kosogova. Ships that “naval Governor” built a Russian rozmysl Jacob Poluektov. The French Ambassador at the court of Sultan Mohammed IV wrote about this squadron: “his Majesty (the Sultan), some courts Muscovites came to Istanbul, produce more fear than the plague.”
So we see that the fleet of Russia has been, since time immemorial. So why still the Creator of the Russian Navy is considered to be Tsar Peter I?
Western Europeans marveled at the grandeur of Russia and its Tsars. Thus, the English Ambassador K. Adams wrote: “going into audience-hall, the British were dazzled by the splendor that surrounded the Emperor. He sat on an elevated throne, in a Golden tiara and rich purple, burnt gold; in his right hand he had a Golden scepter, sprinkled with precious stones; on her face shone with grandeur, worthy of the Emperor” [Clement Adams. The first voyage of the English to Russia in 1553 // journal of the Ministry of national education. No. 10. 1838].
Patrick Gordon says: “Are at the service of the Emperor” [Patrick Gordon. Diary 1677-1678. – M.: Nauka, 2005].
In the Preface to the London edition of 1671, the book of Samuel Collins it is written:“In Russia nine years he occupied the honorable position when the Great Emperor (the Great Emperour)” [Samuel Collins. Preface to the London edition of the Present State of Russia, in a Letter to a Friend at London, Written by an Eminent Person residing at the Great Tzars Court at Mosco for the space of nine Weah. Illustrated with many Copper Plates. London, Printed by John Winter for Dorman Newman at the Kings Arms in the Poultry. A. D. 1671]. In the book of Jelsa Fletcher “Of the Russe Common Wealth” (“On the Russian State), published in London in 1591, stated that the title of the Russian Tsar are the words “King of the whole world”.
In the Treaty of Basil III, the ruler of Vienna, by Maximilian from 1514, the first one was called “the grace of God, the Caesar, meaning the Emperor. Also called kings of the other “lead” of the Holy Roman Empire, the Latin Pope and the kings of Spain, France, Denmark, England [Russian vivliothecs. Part 4. – M.: Comp. Typographical, 1788. – P. 64] About this contract knew Peter I, ordered to be published in 1718…
In the articles list of the Embassy clerk of Vladimir Plemyannikov sent by Tsar Vasily Ivanovich to the “Caesar” Maximilian (Ivan the terrible was the first Russian Tsar), to indicate that “Caesar” considered himself a vassal of the King – Emperor of the world: “the Emperor to the Grand Duke the name of the hat has been removed” [Russian vivliothecs. Part 4. – C. 2]. Russian Tsar at the mention of the rulers of the countries, this would never do…
Ivan did not consider the Swedish king Gustav WASA as an equal, and angrily wrote to him: “If the king himself does not know, then let their merchants will ask: suburbs of Novgorod — Pskov, Veliky Ustyug, tea, you know how much each of them more Glass” [Solovyov S. M. Works. KN. III. – M., 1989. – P. 482]. So could communicate only the monarch and their vassals. Stateyny lists of embassies sent by the Kings, saying that the Russian ambassadors always stood before kings, and “Caesar” in hats, and the rulers of the country received ambassadors of Russia standing. So, on 27 February, the Embassy of P. P. Potemkin 1667-1668 he arrived in Madrid and on March 7, was adopted 7-year-old king and his mother Queen Maria Anne of Austria. During an audience with the king stood with uncovered head, but then put on a hat. In time the pronunciation of the titles of the King, the king headgear is not removed and forgot to ask Potemkin about the health of the King, which caused a scandal. Potemkin stopped reading the letter and threatened to leave Madrid: “Steward Peter said it on the mandate that against our Sovereign, His Royal Majesty king imenovanie hats are not removed, and about the health of His Imperial Majesty did not ask. The Butler to the Marquis de Aton managed to avoid conflict: “Not in croslin leteh Royal Highness.” The messengers decided to forgive the king and to inflict the Royal Majesty and not in sample”. The king suggested that we SHOULD ask about the health of the King, after which “Royal Highness asked about the health of the Great Emperor, and the Envoys spoke about it in the instructions” [Russian vivliothecs. Part 4. – Pp. 190-191].
N. Karamzin in the “History of the Russian state” quotes the words of the King of Dmitry Ivanovich: “I am not only a Prince, not only the Ruler and King, but the great Emperor in his immeasurable possession. this title given to me by God… and not all the monarchs of the European call me Emperor?“[N. M. Karamzin. History of the Russian state. T. XI, Kaluga, 1994, Chapter 4]. Russian Tsars knew that they – the rulers of the world.
In the 17th century by Yuri krizhanich so formed the universal rule of the Russian Tsar: “There can not be a single person higher than the King, and no dignity and greatness in the world above the Royal dignity and greatness” [Yu Krizanic Policy / Editors, M. N. Tikhomirov, translated by A. L. Goldberg. M., 1965].
The Kings themselves called the Rurik, as the Russian Tsars were proud to be descendants of romeyskoy of Augustus, ancestor of Rurik, and Rurik not only. Orthodox Christians around the world believed that this Dynasty has never been interrupted and not interrupted, even for a short time, the Church cannot remain without a King, and His descendants: “it is Impossible for Christians to have a Church, but not to have a King!“ – wrote the Patriarch Antonius IV of V. K. Vasily Dmitrievich [Sokolsky Participation of the Russian clergy and monasticism in the development of autocracy and Autocracy. Kiev, 1902]. Russian MONARCHS had inherited the throne only through the male line… If the rule was broken, the Dynasty would be broken.
The LETTER of the GREAT MOSCOW CATHEDRAL on 21 February 1613, the year was as follows:
Sent by the Lord God, Your Holy Spirit into the hearts of all Orthodox Christians, thou speak mouth Vapiano that to be alone in the Vladimir and Moscow and at all States of the Russian Empire Emperor, King and Great Prince of all Russia Autocrat, You Great Prince Mikhail Feodorovich.
Kissed all the life-giving Cross and the vow gave that Great Sovereign, God-honored, God’s chosen and beloved by God, Tsar and Grand Prince Mikhail Fedorovich of all Russia, Autocrat, Pious Tsarina and Grand Duchess and THEIR ROYAL CHILDREN (descendants), WHICH THEY, the SOVEREIGNS, HENCEFORTH, GOD willing, the soul for its and head of polarity and sluziti Them Unto our faith and truth, all their souls and minds.
And who will go against this Conciliar decree — the King, the Patriarch there, and every man, Yes curse itself in this world and in the future, will Bo separated it from the Holy Trinity.
And other Sovereign than the Sovereign, Tsar and Grand Prince Mikhail Fedorovich of all Russia Autocrat and THEIR ROYAL CHILDREN, WHICH THEY, the SOVEREIGNS, HENCEFORTH, GOD will GIVE, seek and want no other Sovereign of any people or Wake, or what is famously parochet, ucinite, we the nobles, and okolnichy, and the nobles and clerks people and guests, and knights, and all sorts of people, that traitor to state all the earth for one.
Proctora this approval Letter on the Great national Cathedral, and after listening to forever more strengthening — so be alone at all on how this Approved written Literacy. And who cleaning not pohudet poslushati this Conciliar law Code, God bless, and start glagolite eno, and rumors in ludah, cinity, per se, but from the sacred rite, and of the boyars, the Tsar and the Synod in the military or who are from ordinary people, and in what order do not Wake; according to the Holy rules of St. The Apostle and of the seven Ecumenical Councils — SV. Father, and of the local, and Council Code only to be cast out, and excommunicated the Church of God, and the Holy Mysteries of initiation, like the schismatic Church of God and all of Orthodox Christianity, a rebel and a destroyer of the Law of God, and the king’s Laws revenge vosprinimat, and our humility and all consecrated Cathedral, don’t Wake the blessings from now until century. Let there be a firm and indestructible in the next summer, in the generations, and not pass a single feature of writing in it.
And the Cathedral was the Moscow State from all cities of the Russian Kingdom of power: metropolitans, bishops and archimandrites, abbots, Protopopov and the whole Cathedral was Consecrated. The boyars and okolnichy, Chashniki and steward and lawyer, and dumnyi nobles and deci and tenants, nobles and great lords of cities, diaky of orders, heads of the Streltsy and Cossack atamans, Streltsy and Cossacks, and townspeople shopping and great ranks of servicemen and gilleskie all sorts of people, and of all the cities, all the Russian Kingdom elected people.
And stacked written byst and this Approved Letter for hands and peacetime of our Great Sovereign Tsar and Grand Prince Mikhail Fedorovich of all Russia Autocrat, the Imperial city the city of Moscow, in the first summer of his reign, and from the creation 7121 (Approved letter of the Great Moscow Cathedral on 21 February 1613, the year / Annex II (Documents) / History of the Russian Orthodox Church. Vol. 1. – SPb.: Sunday, 1997. – P. 739 – 740).
Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich was the grandson of Tsar Fedor Ivanovich, the great grandson of Ivan the terrible, which is evident from the “Rite of inauguration the Kingdom of Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich”: “all-powerful and all-containing God the Father, by the will and grace of His only begotten Son, Lord God and Savior Jesus Christ, and the Holy good and life-giving spirit of the Almighty Holy and Consubstantial Trinity will and volition Begone the great kings of the Russian root was to damodarastakam he did to thy great of Russia from previligiada the first Grand Duke Rurik, who OTO August Caesar with the whole world, and of pious and equal to the apostles great Prince Vladimir Svyatoslavich, positiveso Russian land by Holy baptism, and from the great Prince Vladimir Monomakh, who privyazalsya honor the Royal crown, and put the Holy crown from the Greek Emperor Constantine Monomakh of Veprik, Wherefore Monomakh narcisa, from him, all great sovereigns of the Russian Kingdom, crown vandalise, even before the great sovereign, righteous and worthy praises, blessed memory of your grandfather, the Great Emperor, Tsar and great Prince Feodor Ivanovich, BCEAO Russia autocrat” [Talina G. V., State power and the system of regulation of social and official position of the representatives of high society in the initial period of the formation of absolutism in Russia (1645-1682.). – M.: Prometheus, 2001. Cm. on the book. A. Casa “the collapse of the Empire of the Russian Tsars”, electronic version]. Paul of Aleppo, who visited Muscovy unto 1655, wrote: “Unto the day of the Meeting we came unto the city of Moscow. First, we entered crazy earthen wall and a large moat, okruzhaushey city; potomy moved to the second stone wall, which was erected by the grandfather of the present king, Theodore, Komy also poured earth wall” [Paul of Aleppo. The journey of Patriarch of Antioch Macarius to Moscow in mid-XVII century, SPb.: P. P. Soikin, 1898]. Unto the “Charter the Charter of Tsar Mikhail Fedorovich Kakhetian king Teimuraz I,” says: “And took grandfather Nash blessed memory, the great sovereign Tsar and Grand Prince Ivan Vasilyevich BCEAO Rusii autocrat beneath his Royal high hand Leontia Georgian king, Tsarev Alexandrov of the father, in defense of the Christian faith pravoslavnye” [RGADA, f. 110. Relations between Russia and Georgia, op. 1, vol. 5, l 49-63 about, (list). Another list: ibid., op. 1, 1641, No. 2, pp. 1-4.].
The dynasty of the Tsars of Russia were the heritage of mankind, a sign of God’s goodwill towards people.
When the King was born the firstborn, he was given the name of his grandfather. Second son of the King was given the title of father. The third son of the King at baptism was given the name of his great-grandfather. The fourth son of the King had the same name as his great-grandfather. The fifth son of a King were called the same . like his great-grandfather. The sixth the king’s son was named one of ancestors. This practice of naming names can be traced all the princes, however, must take into account the fact that many children died in infancy. Royal children were often killed by the enemies of the Royal family. It should also be recognized that the names of many princes falsifiers of history have tried to erase from the annals of history.
So, first-born child of Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich and his wife Maria Ilyinichna Miloslavskaya was the Prince Michael, named in honor of his grandfather. He had to be born in October, 1648, as the wedding took place on January 16 of that year. This is indirectly confirmed by the historical sources, according to which the former tutor of the King, the boyar Boris Ivanovich Morozov, who was in exile for the abuses in the printing of copper money, was forgiven in October, 1648, apparently in connection with the birth of a Prince. 29 Oct 1648 by the boyar Boris Morozov is present in Moscow at the lunch, held, apparently, after the sacrament of baptism of first child (Andreev I. the passion of d’artagnan // Knowledge — force. 1991. — No. 8. — Pp. 83-84). Also, based on the order of naming names the princes, it can be assumed that the Tsar Fedor Ivanovich had three survived until the 17th century sons: Boris, Seeds, and Michael. Semyon Fyodorovich mentioned in the public acts of the time of Troubles, but does not expressly called a Prince.
It is believed that Catherine II had two children: Paul, Peter III, and Alexis – from count Grigory Orlov. However, between Peter III and Catherine II did not have marital relations, as evidenced by a letter of the Grand Duke to Catherine, dated December 1746:
The French original of the letter 1746
I ask you tonight not to bother to sleep with me, inasmuch as it is too late to deceive me, the bed became too narrow after two weeks of separation with you this day in the afternoon
your poor husband, whom you have not honored this name.
Perhaps it should be assumed that Tsar Paul I was the son of count Gregory Orlov?
The count Grigory Orlov – the son of a military leader and statesman of the Russian Empire, Novgorod Governor, state Councilor Grigory Ivanovich Orlov (R. 1695). Almost nothing is known about the father of G. I. Orlova – if “court lawyer,” but historians know the names of his sons:
- Ivan (1733-1791)
- Grigory (1734-1783)
- Alexei (1737-1808)
- Fedor (1741-1796)
- Michael (b. 1742, died in infancy)
- Vladimir (1743-1831)
Due to some merit of G. I. Orlov became the Novgorod Governor?
G. I. Orlov was born when he reigned Ivan V, who had, according to the official version of history, sons. But G. I. Orlov gave his sons the names as if he was the son of Ivan V.
Whether accidentally became Grigory Orlov, favorite of Catherine II?..